Autonomous drone warfare


Recently, a military robot has autonomously taken the decision to attack enemy troops in the Libyan war without waiting for any human intervention. Russia is also suspected of using such kind of robots in the current war against Ukraine. This news has highlighted the possibility of radical changes in war scenarios. Using a Catholic perspective, we will analyze these new challenges, indicating the anthropological and ethical bases that must lead to the prohibition of autonomous “killer robots” and, more generally, to the overcoming of the just war theory. We will also point out the importance of Francis of Assisi, whom the encyclical Fratelli tutti has proposed again as a model for advancing towards a fraternal and pacified humanity.

Słowa kluczowe

LAWS; robot; wojna sprawiedliwa; Franciszek z Asyżu; Fratelli tutti

Adorno, T. W., Horkheimer, M. (1997). Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Herber&Herber.

Altuna, B. (2016). «Empatía y moralidad: las dimensiones psicológicas y filosóficas de una relación compleja». In Revista de Filosofía 43/2, 245-262.

Amstrong, R. J., Hermann, J. A., Short, W. J. (ed.) (1999). Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. 3 vol. New York: NCP.

Apps, P. (2021). «New era of robot war may be underway unnoticed». Reuters (10.06.2021). In Internet:

Arkin R. (2009). Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots. Boca Raton: CRC.

Asaro, P. (2012). «On banning autonomous weapon systems: human rights. automation. and the dehumanization of lethal decision-making». In International Review of the Red Cross 94/886, 687-709

Augustine of Hippo (1841-1864). De Civitate Dei. In Migne J.-P., Patrologia Latina. 226 vol. Paris: Garnier.

Augustine of Hippo (2009). La ciudad de Dios. XIX. Madrid: BAC.

Barone, L., Bacchini D. (ed.) (2013). Le emozioni nello sviluppo relazionale e morale. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Bersini, H. (2018). Big Brother is driving you. Brèves réflexions d'un informaticien obtus sur la société à venir. Bruxelles: Académie Royale de Belgique.

Brufan,i S. (ed) (2016). Il Perdono d’Assisi. Storia agiografia erudizione. Spoleto: Fondazione CISAM.

Camere, C. P. et al. (2017). Il perdono di Assisi e le indulgenze plenarie: Atti dell'Incontro di studio in occasione dell'VIII centenario dell'Indulgenza della Porziuncola (1216-2016). S. Maria degli Angeli. Spoleto: Fondazione CISAM.

Carbajo Núñez, M. (2008). Francisco de Asís y la ética global. Madrid: PPC.

Carbajo Núñez, M. (2017). Sister Mother Earth. Franciscan Roots of the Laudato si’. Phoenix (AZ): TAU.

Catechism of the Catholic Church (1997). Vatican City: LEV.

Columba Jerez, A. (2022). «La inteligencia artificial también entra en combate en la guerra en Ucrania». ABC (19.03.). In Internet:

Davis, E. V. W. (2021). Shadow warfare. Cyberwar policy in the United States. Russia. and China. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Ferrero, E. (2019). Francesco e il Sultano. Torino: Einaudi.

Fisher, R., Ury, W. L. (1991). Getting to yes: negotiating an agreement without giving in. New York: Penguin.

Francis (2013). «Homilia. Vigília de oração pela paz» (Sept. 7.). In Osservatore Romano 205 (Sept. 8.), 8.

Francis (2014). «Address to the UN chief executives board» (May 9. 2014). In Osservatore Romano 105 (May 10.), 7.

Francis (2015). «Laudato si’. Encyclical letter» (May 24.). n. 104. In AAS 107, 847-945.

Francis (2019a). «Speech on nuclear weapons. Nagasaki» Address on nuclear weapons. Nagasaki» (Nov. 24.). In Osservatore Romano 269, 6.

Francis (2019b). «Address at the Peace Memorial. Hiroshima» (Nov. 24.). in Osservatore Romano 269, 8.

Francis (2020). «Fratelli tutti. Encyclical letter». (Nov. 3.). Vatican City: LEV.

Francisco de Vitoria (1959). Obras de Francisco de Vitoria. Relecciones teológicas. Madrid: Urdánoz.

Galliott, J. (2017). Military Robots. Mapping the Moral Landscape. London: Routledge.

Himes K. (2001). «La rhétorique religieuse de la guerre juste». In Concilium fr 290, 60-62.

Hobbes, T. (2021). The Leviathan. Crooke. New York 1651, 98-102 (recent edition: Id.. Leviathan. Portland: Mint).

Hoffman, M. L. (2002). Desarrollo moral y empatía: implicaciones para la atención y la justicia. Barcelona: Idea Books.

Jamieson, K. H. (2020). Cyberwar. How Russian hackers and trolls helped elect a president. What we don’t. can’t. and do know. Oxford: Oxford UP.

John Paul II (1981). Address to scientists and representatives of the United Nations university». Hiroshima (Feb. 25.), n. 3. In AAS 73, 422.

John Paul II (2002). «Address to the representatives of the world religions» (Jan. 24.). in Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II. [InsJP2]. XXV/1, pp. 102-106. Vatican City: LEV.

John XXIII (1963). «Pacem in terris. Encyclical letter» (April 11.). In AAS 55, 257-304.

Jonas, H. (2008). Memoirs. London: New England UP.

Jurkovic, I., bishop (2017). «Statement to the 2017 group of Governmental experts on LAWS». (Geneva 1 Nov.). In Internet:

Kahn, L (2020).. «Military Robots and the Likelihood of Armed Combat». In P. Lin, R. Jenkins, K. Abney, Robot ethics 2.0. From Autonomous Cars to Artificial Intelligence, pp. 274-287. New York: Oxford UP.

Kallenborn, Z. (2022). «Russia may have used a killer robot in Ukraine. Now what?» in Bulletin of the Atomis Scientists (15.03). In Internet:

Kant, I. (2004). Metafísica dos costumes (parte I: Princípios metafísicos da doutrina do direito). Lisboa: Edições 70.

Lambert, D. (2017). «The humanization of robots: Lethal autonomous weapons systems and ethics». In Rochefoucauld A., Saldi S. (ed.). The Humanization of robots and the robotization of the human person. Ethical reflections on lethal autonomous weapons system and augmented soldiers, pp. 16-46. Chambésy: FCIV.

Lambert, D. (2020). «Autonomous weapons and cyberconflicts. How Christian ethics can deal with war’s new face?». In Angelicum 97/1, 93-105.

Lévinas, E. (1968). Totality and infinity. An essay on exteriority. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP.

Lorenzetti, L. (2013). «Pacem in terris. svolta per la teologia morale». In RTM 179/3, 347-355.

Mura, G. (1982). Emmanuel Lévinas. Ermeneutica e “separazione”. Roma: Città nuova.

Mylod, E. J. et al. (ed.) (2019). The Fifth Crusade in context. The Crusading Movement in the early thirteenth century. London: Routledge.

O’Donovan, O. (2006). The just war revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Paul VI (1965). «Address to the UN» (Oct. 4.). in AAS 57, 880.

Pati, S. (2022). «Bot in arms: autonomous drones in the Russia-Ukraine war». (20.02.). In Internet:

Ricoeur ,P. (1995a). «Le concept de responsabilité. Essai d’analyse sémantique». In Idem, Le Juste. Vol. I, pp. 41-70. Paris: Ésprit.

Ricoeur, P. (1995b). Le Juste. Paris: Ésprit.

Rocchetta, C. (1993). Hacia una teología de la corporeidad.. Madrid: San Pablo.

Salamander, R. (2008). «Foreword». in Jonas H.. Memoirs, p. XIII. London: New England UP.

Second Vatican Council (1966) . «Gaudium et spes. Constituição pastoral» (Dec. 7.). In AAS 58, 1025-1120.

Sensi, M. (2002). Il perdono di Assisi. Assisi: Porziuncola.

Thomas Aquinas (1967). Suma contra los Gentiles. Madrid: Ed. Católica.

Thomas Aquinas (1994). Summa Theologiae. Madrid: BAC.

Tomasi, S. M. (2017). «Statement at the United Nations informal meeting of experts on lethal autonomous weapons systems (ccw)» (13.05.2014). In The Caritas in Veritate Foundation [FCIV] Working Papers, The Humanization of robots and the robotization of the Human person. Ethical reflections on lethal autonomous weapons systems and augmented soldiers, p. 73-75. Chambésy: FCIV.

Tyerman, C. (2017). Le guerre di Dio: nuova storia delle crociate. Torino: Einaudi.

Vilmer, J.-B. J. (2016). «Diplomatie des armes autonomes: les débats de Genève». In Politique étrangère 81/3, 119-130.

Vilmer, J.-B. J. (2017). «Terminator ethics: Should we ban ‘killer robots’?». In Otto P., Gräf E., 3th1cs. A reinvention of ethics in the digital age?, pp. 98-113. Berlin: Irights Media.

Vitoria, F. de (1959). «De indis relectio posterior sive De iure belli (June 19. 1539)». In Idem, Obras de Francisco de Vitoria. Relecciones teológicas, pp. 811-858. Madrid: Urdánoz.

Wallach, W., Allen, C. (2010). Moral machines: teaching robots right from wrong. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Opublikowane : 2022-10-06

Carbajo-Núñez OFM, M. (2022). Autonomous drone warfare. Warszawskie Studia Teologiczne, 35(1), 103-117.

Martín Carbajo-Núñez OFM 
Pontifical University Antonianum Rome, ItalyAlfonsianum (Pontifical Lateran University) Rome, ItalyFST – San Diego University, CA, USA  Włochy

Martín Carbajo-Núñez OFM — dr teologii moralnej, licencjat germanistyki, magister komunikacji społecznej, dyplomowany technik komputerowy. Kierownik Katedry Etyki Społecznej na Papieskim Uniwersytecie Antonianum, wykładowca etyki i komunikacji na Antonianum i Alfonsianum w Rzymie oraz we Franciscan School of Theology przy University of San Diego (USA). Były Zastępca Rektora oraz Rector Magnificus ad interim Uniwersytu Antonianum.

Czasopismo jest bezpłatne i udostępniane na zasadach otwartego dostępu (w formacie pdf na stronie internetowej). Od autorów artykułów nie są pobierane żadne opłaty. „Warszawskie Studia Teologiczne” ukazują się na licencji według standardów Creative Commons: CC BY-ND 4.0 (Uznanie autorstwa - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe) i nie prowadzą skonkretyzowanej polityki dotyczącej danych badawczych. Autorzy zachowują prawa autorskie.